Examplified by the explosion at the city of Beirut on August 4, 2020: Theoretical modeling results
|1Chernogor, LF |
1V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
|Kinemat. fiz. nebesnyh tel (Online) 2021, 37(3):24-45|
|Start Page: Dynamics and Physics of Solar System Bodies|
The study direct and reverse, positive and negative interconnections among the subsystems in the Earth (internal spheres) — atmosphere — ionosphere — magnetosphere system (EAIMS) is commonly based on high-power active experiments. One of the experiments of opportunity is an impact on the EAIMS of large chemical explosions. Examples include active experiments utilizing 5 kt TNT, 1.5 kt TNT, and 2 kt TNT yield explosions. A powerul chemical explosion has been shown earlier to affect all geospheres, viz, it generates seismic waves in the lithosphere, disturbances in the electric field, electromagnetic emissions, acoustic and atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), traveling ionospheric disturbances, and MHD waves in the near-Earth plasma. The physical effects and ecological consequences of multiple chemical explosions and accompanying fires have also been studied earlier. The major conclusion that has been drawn in these studies is that a response to such an impact can appear in all EAIMS subsystems. This paper aims to describe the principle physical effects in the atmosphere and geospace accompanying the powerful explosion at the city of Beirut on August 4, 2020. The comprehensive analysis of the main physical processes accompanying the explosion in the city of Beirut has been performed to determine the following. The Beirut explosion yield was estimated to be about 1 kt TNT. More than 90 % of explosion energy was transformed into the energy of the shock, and the rest was spent to cause damage and to leave a crater roughly of 40x103 m3 and the 80 kt mass of the ground jettisoned. The damage size and surface area have been estimated. The thermic has been estimated to have sim 100 m horizontal size, the sim 46 m/s speed of its ascending, and the 1.6 min time of the ascent up to the maximum altitude of about 4 km. At a range of 250 km, the island of Cyprus, the intensity of sound has been estimated to be no less than 76 dB. The shock wave traveling upwards caused significant disturbance in the atmosphere and geospace. An increase in the wave pressure has been estimated to be tens of per cent in the 86...90 km altitude range. Shock wave dissipation in the 80...90 km altitude range could have caused atmospheric heating by 10...20 %, the generation of AGWs with delta p sim 0.1, which propagated to distances of thousand kilometers from the epicenter. The secondary waves could have generated periodic variations, via the dynamo effect, in the geomagnetic field with amplitude of 0.1...0.3 nT.
|Keywords: atmosphere, Earth's surface explosion, electric effect, electromagnetic effect, geospace, increase in pressure on a relative scale, modeling results., seismic effect, shock wave, thermic|
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